John Calvin Reformation Facts - Summary and Analysis
John Calvin - born 1509 – died 1564
John Calvin was a French Theologian and pastor.
After religious tensions escalated in France, Calvin fled to Switzerland. He was originally a humanist like Thomas More. However, unlike More, Calvin broke with the Roman Catholic Church.
In Switzerland, Calvin published his book, Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536.
Calvin helped reform the church in Geneva. The city council resisted the reformation and expelled Calvin from the city. He proceeded to go to Strasburg and become the minister for a congregation of French refuges. He continued to support the reformation of the church in Geneva in his absense. Later, he returned to Geneva.
Calvinism follows the doctrine of predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation. It spread throughout Europe.
John Calvin was a legalist who wrote detailed treatises on theology. He rejected all ritual and dress that looked Popery. Calvin believed in strict observances of the Sabbath, which most people did not like for this was their only day off to have fun. Lutherans went to church and then had the remainder of the day to do as they wished. Under Calvinism, capital crimes included murder, treason, adultery, witchcraft, blasphemy and heresy were punishable all by death.
A Calvinist was a follower of John Calvin. The Calvinist had an especially strong belief that the Bible contained all things necessary for salvation. In addition, the Calvinist believed that God, with foreknowledge of mankind's fall, issued an eternal decree predestining some people to salvation and permitting others to endure the penalties of the fall or eternal damnation. Only those granted a saving faith were made capable of expressing that faith in good works.
The Reformed, Congregational, and Presbyterian churches are based on Calvinism. The Boers of South Africa, beloging to the Dutch Reformed Church, lived their lives according to Calvinism.
Presbyterians were those who believed that all ministers were equal and that for any minister to claim a superiority of orders over others was wrong. Those who believed in strong structures of ecclesiastical discipline but made up of layers formed from the bottom up parishes nominating to local bodies who nominate to regional bodies, who nominate to national bodieds. Presyterianism developed strongly in Scotland but not in England.
Huguenots were the name given to members of the French Calvinist Churches from 1560 onwards.
Black Bartholomew Day: the commemoration throughout Protestant Europe of the day in 1572 when several leading Huguenots were assassinated, sparking off an orgy of killing, 3000 being massacred in Paris and 8000 throughout France.
Predestinarian is one who believed that God, with foreknowledge of mankind's fall, issued an eternal decree predestining some people to salvation and permitting others to endure the penalties of the fall or eternal damnation. Only those granted a saving faith were made capable of expressing that faith in good works.
Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England (1560-1650) of the dregs of Popery in its government, worship and doctrine. Also known as precisians as the hotter sort of Protestants as the godly or as the strictest adherents of Calvinism.