The New Deal
The New Deal Programs were implemented by Franklin D. Roosevelts
administration during the Great Depression. Many of the New Deal programs
that still exist today are described below.
The New Deal was 2 new deals. It was a series of acts to help boost
the economy during the depression. There are mixed feelings on these
policies. Some feel that Roosevelt's policies actually prolonged the
Depression whereas others feel his policies helped the economy.
The Emergency Banking Act was designed to give investors confidence
in the banks. The Glass–Steagall Act created the Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation (FDIC) which insures banking deposits against fraud, theft
or bank failure.
The Social Security Act was also implemented under FDR's administration.
Federal Emergency Relief Act which was originally started under Hoover,
was continued. It was designed to help those unemployed.
- Roosevelt's New Deal started the CCC or the Civilian Conservation
Corp. It was apart of the Federal Emergency Relief Act. It was also
the most popular of Roosevelt's policies. The CCC was intended to
put young men to work and keep them occupied so they would not start
any trouble. Young single men age 18-25 worked in the CCC. This
program was run like the military and used strict discipline the
men received $25.00 dollars a month. $20 dollars of their pay went
to their families. $5.00 went to the men. The CCC built the
Ridge Parkway. The impact on the region was jobs, exposure to
the rest of the country, and the legacy of the Blue Ridge Parkway.
The Appalachian Mountains
were isolated and therefore backwards in development compared to
the rest of the country.
- Roosevelt's New Deal also started the TVA
or Tennessee Valley Authority. The TVA was a massive public works
program formed in 1933. This program had a major role in the development
of Western North Carolina and EasternTennessee. The TVA dammed up
the rivers and experimented in regional planning. The TVA
dammed up most of the Tennessee River which was prone to flooding.
Damming the rivers not only solve the problem of flooding but made
electricity available. Fontana Dam was a project of TVA during the
30's. The French Broad runs through Asheville
and joins with the Tennessee River at Knoxville TN. The impact on
the region was fertilizer, erosion control, tons of jobs, and industry.
All this was possible because of the electricity.
- Rural Electrification
Program was another New Deal project. This was an attempt to
put electricity in every home. It was a subsidy program. Rural areas
are often spread out where houses are quite a distance from other
houses. This makes it expensive to have electricity. Since the area
has always been isolated due to the rugged terrain, people living
in the Appalachian Mountains were poor. The Appalachian Region benefited
from the Rural Electrification most. The subsidy program made it
possible for most everyone in the Appalachian mountains to have
electricity. However, I knew people in Western North Carolina who
grew up in the 40's and 50's who did not have electricity, running
water, or inside plumbing.
Roosevelt's opposition compared his policies with communism. However,
the labor unions supported his programs.
Many of the New Deal's policies are still in effect today for example,