Henry VII mother was Margaret Beaufort who married Owen Tudor.
Margaret Beaufort, descended from bastards born to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 4th son of Edward the III, legitimized by statute of Richard II in 1397, 10 years later, Henry the IV added a rider to the statute that barred Beauforts and their descendents from inheriting the throne.
Henry Tudor had a disputed claim to the throne, every member of the Plantagenet House of York had more right than he to the throne.
His reign as king was from 1485-1509.
Bosworth Field August 22 1485 - Battle took place between the Yorkists and Lancastrians, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became king by right of conquest. King Richard III died in the battle. The location of this battle is Market Bosworth.
Sir William Stanley - Lord Chamberlain - switched sides during battle, pulled the crown from a bush where it had landed after Richard III was killed and placed the crown on Henry Tudor's head.
Henry VII married Elizabeth of York in 1486 to strengthen his claim to the English Throne
Elizabeth York was the 4th daughter of Edward IV and had legal claim to the throne.
Elizabeth of York produced 4 living children by Henry VII, Arthur, Henry VIII, Margaret, Mary
Elizabeth Woodville, Henry's mother in law was sent to a convent, was married (1464) to Sir John Grey a Lancastrian who had died at the battle of St Albans. Elizabeth Woodville was a commoner.
Henry VII claimed decent from Kings of Welsh
Claimed King in own right (by right of conquest and inheritance justified by William I at Hastings) and postponed marriage to Elizabeth of York until his coronation. Henry appealed to Divine Right of Kings - God chose Henry as King by granting victory to Henry at Bosworth Field.
Henry deposed of adversaries, killed heads of families, deprived property of those families loyal to the Yorkist factions and fined the rich barons.
Lambert Simnel impersonated the Earl of Warwick while the earl was still alive. He managed to rally the Yorkists against the Tudors. At the Battle of Stoke. Lambert was captured, pardoned and put to work as a sculley boy in Henry Tudorís (Henry VII) kitchen.
Henry VII provided firm stable government
Henry VII was a miser
see also Medieval Castles in England
UNCA Tudor History class notes
Weir, Alison, The Six Wives of Henry VIII, Grove Press (April 2000)